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“Spanish Stonehenge” emerges from watery grave for second time in final 3 years


The Dolmen of Guadalperal completely visible in July 2019 due to a low water level in the Valdecañas reservoir.
Enlarge / The Dolmen of Guadalperal fully seen in July 2019 as a consequence of a low water degree within the Valdecañas reservoir.

Final week we advised you in regards to the flurry of latest protection resurfacing 2018 information tales in regards to the re-emergence of so-called “starvation stones” as a consequence of excessive drought situations in Europe. We additionally famous that Europe is as soon as once more within the midst of a traditionally extreme drought. Now an historic website often known as the “Spanish Stonehenge”—submerged underwater by a reservoir for many years—has been totally uncovered for the second time since 2019 as a consequence of low water ranges within the reservoir.

The positioning is also referred to as the Dolmen of Guadalperal, a round grouping of 150 giant vertical granite stones (referred to as orthostats) relationship again to between 2000 and 3000 BCE. Nevertheless, Roman artifacts recovered on the website—a coin, ceramic fragments, and a grinding stone—counsel it might need been used even earlier. A crew led by German archaeologist Hugo Obermaier found the monument in 1926 close to a city referred to as Peraleda de la Mata.

Among the many recovered artifacts have been 11 axes, flint knives, ceramics, and a copper punch. A close-by settlement seemingly housed the individuals who constructed the monument, given the presence of homes, charcoal and ash stains, pottery, and stones to hone axes. Obermaier restored a few of the granite stones to their rightful locations and made reproductions of the engravings, which have been revealed in 1960.  

The vertical stones type an ovoid chamber (dolmen) connecting to a protracted (21 meters, or 69 ft) hall. On the hall entrance is a big standing stone, or “menhir,” carved with what seems to be a snake. The chamber was lined with a mound of earth and gravel surrounded by one other round ring.

The precise function of the location stays a matter of debate, however it was most probably used as a photo voltaic temple, a buying and selling put up alongside the Tagus River, or a burial enclave. Per Atlas Obscura:

When it was intact… folks would have entered by means of a darkish, slender hallway adorned with engravings and different decorations, in all probability carrying a torch. This may result in an entry portal into the extra spacious foremost chamber, which had a diameter of round 16 ft, the place the lifeless can be laid to relaxation. It’s additionally seemingly that the monument was oriented across the summer season solstice, permitting, for only a few moments a yr, the solar to shine on the neighborhood’s ancestors. Development of such a big area, with such heavy supplies, would have taken quite a lot of each effort and ingenuity.

In 1963, Spanish dictator Francisco Franco ordered the development of a dam to create the Valdecañas reservoir. The huge mission meant that underdeveloped areas of Spain now had water and electrical energy, however the dolmen and the stays of the Roman metropolis Augustobriga have been buried below the water, together with an inhabited city. (The residents have been relocated.)

Sculpted menhir at the entrance of the corridor leading to the dolmen.
Enlarge / Sculpted menhir on the entrance of the hall resulting in the dolmen.

Residents had seen the information of the dolmen poking out of the reservoir waters earlier than, however in 2019 two main warmth waves introduced a extreme drought that swept throughout Europe, decreasing the water degree so drastically that your complete construction was totally seen for the primary time because the dam was constructed. NASA even launched satellite tv for pc photographs that confirmed the “Spanish Stonehenge.”

And now drought is as soon as once more plaguing Europe, and the Dolmen of Guadalperal is totally seen. Being submerged for all these many years hasn’t been good for the porous granite stones, a few of which present indicators of abrasion and cracking, whereas others have fallen over. Some have referred to as for the Spanish authorities to maneuver the stones to completely dry land, whereas others fear that this might trigger extra injury, particularly if the method was rushed.

In a latest paper, archaeologist A.J. Villa González additionally decried the “large inflow of vacationers to the location, regardless of the two-hour stroll by means of muddy terrain to succeed in it.” Individuals not solely strolled by means of non-public property, but additionally risked their well being as a consequence of “the extraordinary warmth and the complexity of the terrain.” The Spanish authorities declared the location as being of cultural curiosity and is creating a safety plan to protect the monument for future generations.

DOI: Web Archaeology, 2022. 10.11141/ia.60.4  (About DOIs).

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