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The Ransom: A Look Underneath the Hood

Crédit Industriel et Industrial’s historical past in Haiti was difficult to piece collectively, because the financial institution mentioned that it maintained no archives from its early years, and financial institution officers refused to debate the matter. Analysis by the historian Nicolas Stoskopf of Haute-Alsace College, together with “Histoire du Crédit Industriel et Industrial (1859-2009),” didn’t immediately cowl the financial institution’s involvement in Haiti however offered important background on the lender. In interviews, Mr. Stoskopf provided context and steering.

For the U.S. occupation of Haiti, we referred to Mr. Hudson’s “Bankers and Empire: How Wall Road Colonized the Caribbean,” together with his analysis into Wall Road’s exploits within the Caribbean and his ideas on the lasting legacy of the occupation.

We additionally referred to Dana Munro’s “Intervention and Greenback Diplomacy within the Caribbean, 1900-1921” and “America and the Caribbean Republics, 1921-1933” for the monetary points of American overseas coverage within the area.

Yveline Alexis, and her guide, “Haiti Fights Again: The Life and Legacy of Charlemagne Péralte,” added to our understanding of Haitian resistance to the occupation. James Weldon Johnson’s “Self-Figuring out Haiti,” 4 articles printed in The Nation in 1920, additionally explored the early years of occupation.

We drew from different accounts of the occupation, together with Hans Schmidt’s “America Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934,” Patrick Bellegarde-Smith’s “Haiti: The Breached Citadel,” and Mr. Dubois’s “Haiti: The Aftershocks of Historical past.” Different works we referred to included Suzy Castor’s “L’Occupation Américaine d’Haïti”; Raymond Leslie Buell’s “The American Occupation of Haiti”; Roger Gaillard’s “Les Blancs Débarquent, Hinche Mise en Crois, 1917-1918”; Brenda Gayle Plummer’s “Haiti and the Nice Powers, 1902-1915”; and Jonathan M. Katz’s “Gangsters of Capitalism: Smedley Butler, the Marines, and the Making and Breaking of America’s Empire”; which provided an account of occasions in Haiti from the angle of an American marine.

For our analysis into the Duvalier period, we relied on works by Bernard Diederich, “The Worth of Blood: Historical past of Repression and Rise up in Haiti Underneath Dr. François Duvalier, 1957-1961”; and “Papa Doc and The Tonton Macoutes,” which he wrote with Al Burt. We additionally referred to James Ferguson’s “Papa Doc, Child Doc: Haiti and the Duvaliers,” and Mats Lundahl’s “Peasants and Poverty: A Examine of Haiti.” For deeper evaluation of Duvalier’s predatory authorities and its hyperlinks to earlier governments, we turned to Michel-Rolph Trouillot’s “Haiti: State Towards Nation: The Origins and Legacy of Duvalierism.”

A lot of the work on President Jean-Bertrand Aristide’s 2003 marketing campaign, and his ouster, was collected by way of dozens of interviews, firsthand accounts and newspaper articles from that period. However for extra background and evaluation, we drew from Peter Hallward’s “Damming the Flood: Haiti, Aristide, and the Politics of Containment,” Randall Robinson’s “An Unbroken Agony: Haiti, From Revolution to the Kidnapping of a President,” and Hilary McD. Beckles’s “Britain’s Black Debt: Reparations for Caribbean Slavery and Native Genocide.”



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