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Tips on how to Write Good Code: 10 Newbie-friendly Strategies for Prompt Outcomes

As a newbie developer, enhancing your code abilities might be one among your prime priorities. However the place do you begin? With a lot info on the market, it may be robust to know which strategies are price studying and which of them will truly assist you write higher code. 

On this weblog put up, we’ll share 10 beginner-friendly strategies that may assist you write higher code – immediately. So in the event you’re able to take your coding abilities to the subsequent degree, maintain studying!

1. Begin with a plan

Among the finest methods to jot down higher code is to begin with a plan. Earlier than you begin coding, take a couple of minutes to consider what you need your code to do.

Don’t simply bounce into writing code since you suppose you realize what must be carried out. Take a while to actually perceive the issue at hand.

  • What are the inputs and outputs?
  • What are the anticipated outcomes?
  • What are the steps concerned in getting from one to the opposite?
  • What information buildings will you want?
  • Are there any edge instances that must be thought of?

Answering these questions earlier than you begin coding may also help you keep away from getting misplaced in rabbit holes for hours or days. It provides you an opportunity to solidify your psychological conceptualization of how the venture will work, validate it towards any clear leaps of magical considering, and develop a set of take a look at instances to examine your work towards as you go.

Winging it may be enjoyable (and sometimes tempting) however this strategy doesn’t must field you in constrictive methods or take up hours of time. Even a couple of minutes sketching a diagram on paper earlier than you hearth up your editor can pay outsized dividends.

Growing a transparent understanding of what must be carried out allows you to flip your thought right into a concrete plan. Even when the high-level program construction you develop isn’t excellent (and let your inside perfectionist off the hook — it received’t be!), you’ll discover the ensuing code simpler to learn and the complexity of extending the code far more manageable.

And whereas your code will likely be cleaner, you’ll actually profit essentially the most from numerous hours saved on issues that might’ve been averted in the event you’d recognized a number of unknowns and laid out the plan. That’s numerous hours gained to deal with extra superior issues and develop abilities that profit you and your profession.

Suggestions for creating a high-level plan

  1. Develop a transparent understanding of the issue you’re attempting to unravel.
  2. Earlier than you begin coding, take a while to take into consideration what you need your code to do with a purpose to resolve that drawback.
  3. Write pseudocode earlier than you begin coding. Pseudocode is code that isn’t fairly actual code but. It’s helpful for sketching out the construction of your code with out getting slowed down within the particulars.
  4. Draw a diagram. Visualizing the issue may also help you higher perceive what must be carried out and the way the totally different items match collectively.
  5. Test your work. After you have a plan, examine it towards any clear leaps of magical considering and ensure it’s possible.
  6. Use inline feedback to clarify your thought course of. When you’re writing your code, embrace inline feedback to clarify what you’re doing and why. These feedback may be very useful whenever you or another person comes again to the code later. That is very true in the event you’re engaged on a fancy drawback that’s more likely to be complicated to another person.

2. Write significant variable and performance names

One of many hallmarks of well-written code is that it’s straightforward to learn and perceive. An enormous a part of making your code straightforward to learn is utilizing significant variable and performance names.

Choosing good names for issues is difficult. But it surely’s necessary, even in net improvement. Your variable and performance names are normally the very first thing folks look to after they’re attempting to know your code.

Take into account the next instance:

let x, y, z;

perform f() { 


This code will not be very straightforward to learn. What do x, y, and z characterize? What does f() do?

Now contemplate this instance:

let firstName, lastName;

perform printFullName(firstName, secondName) { 


This code is far simpler to learn. The variable names are informative, and the perform title provides us a good suggestion of what it does.

You’ll even be extra more likely to catch errors whenever you’re reviewing your code. It’s a lot simpler to identify a mistake — just like the mistaken variable being handed to a perform — when names are descriptive. In any other case, it’s a must to maintain the which means of that variable in your working reminiscence always.

It’s straightforward sufficient to recollect why we outlined the variable a, however holding ciphers in your working reminiscence turns into overwhelming quick — properly earlier than you outline z. This turns into a cognitive bottleneck that may significantly restrict the scope of complexity you’re capable of handle.

You also needs to undertake a constant model for formatting the names. When folks seek advice from naming conventions in improvement, they’re normally speaking about the way in which capitalization and dividers are used to reinforce readability.

Listed below are the naming conventions you’ll see most frequently in improvement:

  • Camel case: Variable names are written in a collection of phrases which might be joined collectively, with every phrase besides the primary starting with a capital letter. Instance: firstName, lastName, printFullName(). Camel case is quite common in JavaScript.
  • Pascal case: Pascal case is much like camel case, however the first phrase can be capitalized. Instance: FirstName, LastName, PrintFullName().
  • Snake case: Snake case makes use of all lowercase letters and underscores to separate phrases. Instance: first_name, last_name, print_full_name().
  • Kebab case: Kebab case is much like snake case however with hyphens as a substitute of underscores. Instance: first-name, last-name, print-full-name().

When you decide a naming conference, it’s necessary to be constant and follow it.

For instance, you may resolve to make use of camel case (firstName) for variable names and snake case (print_full_name()) for capabilities. On this case, utilizing totally different conventions makes consistency particularly necessary for readability. You’ve implied that every naming conference has a which means.

If that modifications at random, others who must interpret your code should decelerate and will misunderstand it or just need to decelerate and apply extra focus than mandatory.

Suggestions for writing clear variable names

Variable and performance names needs to be:

  • Descriptive.
  • Straightforward to recollect and pronounce.
  • According to different names within the code.

To attain this, you need to:

  • Use descriptive names. The title of a variable or perform ought to describe its goal.
  • Keep away from single letter names, except the which means could be very clear from the context. For instance, it’s normally okay to make use of i as an index in a for loop, as a result of that’s a typical conference.
  • Keep away from magic numbers. A magic quantity is a numeric literal that’s used within the code and not using a clear rationalization of its which means.
  • Resolve on a naming conference, then follow it.
  • As at all times, remark your code. When a transparent title isn’t sufficient and also you do must overview the unique perform or variable, you’ll be capable of refresh your reminiscence rapidly.

While you’re choosing names for issues, ask your self the next questions:

  • What is that this variable or perform for?
  • Does its title describe its goal?
  • Is it straightforward to recollect after I’m and pronounce?
  • Is it per the opposite names within the code?

When you can’t reply all of those questions simply, it’s most likely a good suggestion to decide on a unique title.

3. Write small, modular capabilities

Features are some of the highly effective instruments in a programmer’s toolbox. They help you take a big drawback and break it down into smaller, extra manageable items.

Smaller capabilities are simpler to check, simpler to debug, and simpler to reuse. In addition they make your code extra readable as a result of the aim of every perform is obvious.

Take into account this instance:

perform multiplySquaredNumbers(x, y) {
  let xSquared = x * x;
  let ySquared = y * y;
  return xSquared * ySquared;

console.log(multiplySquaredNumbers(5, 6)); 

As you’ll be able to see, this perform takes two arguments. It declares variables to handle the outcomes of squaring the enter parameters in order that they are often operated on by subsequent strains. Right here, this occurs on the return line, when these variables are multiplied earlier than a single quantity is handed again to the caller.

There are different methods we might strategy simplifying this perform, which you will have already got noticed. Right here’s one:

perform multiplySquaredNumbers(num1, num2) {
    return Math.pow(num1, 2) * Math.pow(num2, 2);

console.log(multiplySquaredNumbers(2, 3));

However to exhibit the utility of modular code, we’ll outsource the method of squaring numbers to its personal perform.

perform sq.(x) {
  return x * x;

perform multiplySquaredNumbers(x, y) {
  return sq.(x) * sq.(y);

console.log(multiplySquaredNumbers(5, 6)); 

At first look, it may be arduous to see how this strategy helps us write higher code. This instance is just too easy (and depends on too many fundamental operators) to cut back the variety of strains of code. In truth, we added a pair.

Concise code is at all times most popular to unnecessarily verbose code. However except you’re finishing a code problem, don’t obtain it at the price of strong, readable code.

It’s necessary to know that code modularity isn’t about an ascetic pursuit of minimalism in your code. It’s about benefiting from the time you’ve spent fixing issues after they come up once more.

Now, any time we need to sq. a quantity sooner or later, we’ll be capable of use our modular perform to do the job, even when we by no means must multiply two squared numbers once more. We’ve already instructed the pc how to do that job. We could as properly profit from it!

If we undertake the strategy within the unique instance, we must inform the interpreter the right way to proceed any time we needed to sq. some numbers for a subsequent operation.

This can be a easy instance, however it illustrates how capabilities can be utilized to interrupt down a bigger drawback into smaller items.

The issues it’s good to resolve repeatedly are normally extra complicated in net improvement. For instance, you may must show an inventory of knowledge from an API name. This entails fetching the information, iterating over it, and dynamically creating parts that show a few of that information on the web page.

Fixing this drawback as soon as is nice, but when it’s good to do it each time an API name is made or an inventory of knowledge is up to date, you’d need to duplicate lots of code. This is able to rapidly turn into unmanageable, particularly because the variety of totally different locations the place this listing may must be displayed grows.

As an alternative, you’ll be able to create a perform that takes some information and returns the weather it’s good to show that information on the web page. Then, each time it’s good to create these parts, you’ll be able to simply name the perform with the suitable information. This is able to enable us to maintain our code DRY and keep away from repeating ourselves.

Suggestions for writing modular capabilities

There are some finest practices you’ll be able to observe when writing modular capabilities:

Preserve capabilities small by giving them a single accountability

While you’re writing a perform, take into consideration what it’s alleged to do and solely have it try this.

It may be tempting to jot down a big, all-encompassing perform that does the whole lot in a single go. However this makes your code tougher to motive about and may result in errors.

It’s normally higher to jot down a number of small capabilities that every do one factor. These are simpler to check and extra more likely to be reused in several elements of your code.

Title your capabilities descriptively

Operate names needs to be clear and descriptive so that you just (and different builders) can simply perceive what they do when studying the code. We’ve mentioned naming, however that is particularly necessary for capabilities which might be used repeatedly all through the codebase.

Keep away from unintended effects

A perform is claimed to have a aspect impact if it modifies one thing exterior of its scope. For instance, a perform that takes an array as an argument and kinds the array could be thought of to have a aspect impact.

Features with out unintended effects are referred to as pure capabilities. These are typically most popular as a result of they’re extra predictable.

It may be tough to keep away from unintended effects on a regular basis, however it’s one thing to bear in mind when writing capabilities.

Use arguments correctly

While you’re deciding what arguments to incorporate in a perform, take into consideration whether or not they’re actually mandatory.

Arguments are sometimes used to make a perform extra versatile in order that it may be utilized in totally different conditions. However too many arguments could make a perform obscure and use.

It’s normally higher to incorporate a smaller variety of well-chosen arguments than a bigger variety of much less necessary ones.

4. Use information buildings appropriately

Knowledge buildings are methods of organizing information in order that it may be used effectively. There are numerous various kinds of information buildings, however a few of the most typical are arrays and objects.

Arrays are lists of knowledge. They can be utilized to retailer any kind of knowledge, however every merchandise in an array will need to have the identical kind. Arrays are declared utilizing sq. brackets:

const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];

Objects are collections of knowledge which might be organized utilizing key-value pairs. The keys are used to entry the values, which may be any kind of knowledge. Objects are declared utilizing curly braces:

const obj = {
  key1: 'value1',
  key2: 'value2',
  key3: 'value3',

Knowledge buildings needs to be used appropriately to make your code extra readable and environment friendly. For instance, in case you have an inventory of knowledge that must be displayed on a web page, utilizing an array could be extra applicable than utilizing an object. It’s because it could be simpler to iterate over the array and create the weather wanted to show the information.

However, in case you have a set of knowledge that must be displayed on a web page, however each bit of knowledge additionally has some related metadata, utilizing an object could be extra applicable than utilizing an array. It’s because it could be simpler to entry the information and metadata utilizing the keys.

5. Remark your code liberally

Feedback are strains of code that aren’t executed however are there for the developer to go away notes for themselves or others. In JavaScript, feedback are denoted with // for single-line feedback and /* */ for multi-line feedback:

Feedback are an effective way to enhance the readability of your code. Use feedback to clarify what your code is doing and why you’re doing it.

Feedback are necessary for 2 essential causes: they may also help you bear in mind what your code is doing, and so they assist others perceive your code. It’s necessary to get within the behavior of commenting your code as you write it. This can assist you maintain observe of your ideas and make it simpler for others to know your code.

One frequent conference is to make use of TODO feedback to go away notes for your self about issues that must be carried out:

One other frequent conference is to make use of FIXME feedback to go away notes for your self about issues that must be fastened:

This can be a useful method to maintain observe of what must be carried out, and it additionally makes it straightforward for others to see what must be carried out.

Typically, it’s a good suggestion to go away feedback everytime you’re unsure what one thing is meant to do, or in the event you suppose there is likely to be a greater method to do one thing. Feedback are additionally typically used to clarify complicated or non-obvious code.

It’s necessary to keep in mind that feedback needs to be used to enhance the readability of your code, to not make it extra obscure. If you end up writing a remark that's longer than the code it's commenting on, that may be a signal that your code will not be readable and needs to be refactored.

Suggestions for commenting code

  • Use feedback to clarify what your code is doing and why you’re doing it.
  • Use feedback to go away notes for your self about issues that must be carried out or fastened.
  • Use feedback to clarify complicated or non-obvious code.
  • Use feedback to reinforce readable code, not as a crutch.
  • Remark your code as you write it. Don’t wait till later.
  • Don’t over-comment your code. Solely remark the elements that want rationalization.
  • Use clear and concise language in your feedback.
  • Keep away from utilizing acronyms or jargon.
  • Preserve your feedback up-to-date along with your code. When you change your code, change your feedback.
  • Delete out of date feedback.

4. Indent your code for readability

Indenting your code makes it simpler to learn, and it additionally helps you notice errors. When your code is correctly indented, it’s simpler to see the construction of your code and the place every part begins and ends. This could be a useful method to debug your code and discover errors.

In JavaScript, the usual indentation is 2 areas. In Python, the usual indentation is 4 areas. In a language like Python the place indentation is important, utilizing the mistaken indentation may cause your code to interrupt.

However even in a language like JavaScript, the place indentation is only a matter of presentation, it’s necessary to be constant along with your indentation. Inconsistent indentation could make your code tougher to learn and perceive.

The primary motive for indenting code is to enhance readability. However indenting code can even assist you discover errors. In case your code is correctly indented, it’s simpler to see when one thing is misplaced.

For instance, check out the next code examples:

perform printHello() {
console.log("Hiya, world!");

perform printHello() {
  console.log("Hiya, world!");


Within the unindented code, it’s tough to see that the console.log() assertion is contained in the printHello() perform. However within the indented code, it’s clear that the console.log() assertion is contained in the printHello() perform. This makes it simpler to identify errors, like in the event you neglect so as to add a curly brace.

Indenting your code is a matter of fashion, however it’s necessary to be constant along with your indentation. Most programming languages have conventions for a way code needs to be indented, so it’s a good suggestion to observe these conventions.

Typically, you need to indent your code everytime you begin a brand new block. A block is a bit of code that's executed collectively. For instance, a block could be a perform, an if assertion, or a for loop.

6. Use whitespace to enhance readability

Along with indenting your code, you can even use whitespace to enhance its readability. By including further spacing between strains of code, you’ll make your code simpler to scan and perceive. That is particularly useful whenever you’re reviewing giant blocks of code.

The house itself makes it simpler to maintain observe of your studying place, simply as paragraphs do for pure languages. However whitespace is finest at making code simpler to learn when it teams associated strains of code collectively.

It’s a typical apply to place a clean line between the top of a perform and the start of the subsequent perform.

perform printHello() {
       console.log("Hiya, world!");

perform printWelcome(title) {
      console.log("Hiya, " + title);

You may add a clean line between the clauses of a conditional assertion.

perform printWelcome(title) {

if (title === "John") {
     print("Welcome, John!");

else {
     print("Welcome, stranger!");

You may additionally add a clean line between the strains of code that declare variables and the strains of code that use these variables.

$title = "John";
$location = "Sydney";

echo "Welcome to $location, $title!";

Whitespace and indentation each present their very own advantages, however they work collectively to create a visible hierarchy that clarifies the circulation of execution. While you mix the usage of whitespace to group associated strains and indentation to point scope, your code and its readability will profit essentially the most.

7. Use arrays and loops for effectivity

Arrays and loops are foundational however highly effective instruments that may assist you write higher code. When you’ve began studying to code, you most likely already learn about them.

Through the use of arrays, you'll be able to retailer information in an organized means. This may make your code extra environment friendly and simpler to learn. Loops, alternatively, may also help you automate repetitive duties.

As soon as you know the way to make use of them correctly, they'll prevent lots of effort and time. For instance, they'll usually eradicate the necessity for sophisticated, nested conditional blocks.

Nested if statements are arduous to learn as a result of they've so many strains of code and contain so many forks within the logic circulation.

Right here’s an instance of a nested if assertion:

if (x > 0) {
  if (x < 10) {
    print("x is between 0 and 10");
  } else {
    print("x is larger than 10");
} else {
  print("x is lower than or equal to 0");

The identical logic may be written extra clearly utilizing an array and a loop:

let numbers = [-5, 0, 5, 10, 15];

for (let i = 0; i < numbers.size; i++) {

  let x = numbers;

  if (x > 0 && < 10) {
    console.log(`x is between 0 and 10`);

  } else if  (x > 10) {
    console.log(`x is larger than 10`);

  } else {
    console.log(`x is lower than or equal to 0`);

This code is simpler to learn as a result of it’s extra concise and the logic circulation is extra linear. The for loop iterates over the weather of the array, and the if assertion checks every aspect to see if it meets the desired situation.

That is usually extra environment friendly as a result of it eliminates the necessity for a number of conditional checks.

8. Write self-documenting code each time attainable

Self-documenting code is code that's straightforward to learn and perceive with out the necessity for feedback. The sort of code is written in a means that makes its goal clear.

This doesn’t substitute good commenting habits, however it does power you to maintain your high-level program construction in thoughts. You’ll produce extra comprehensible code that’s simpler to take care of and fewer error-prone.

There are numerous methods to make your code self-documenting. We’ve already coated a few of them:

  • Use clear and descriptive variable and performance names.
  • Write brief capabilities that do one factor and do it properly.
  • Keep away from magic numbers (numbers with no apparent which means) by utilizing named constants.
  • Use whitespace to separate code into logical chunks.
  • Use clear and constant coding conventions. This makes your code simpler to learn and perceive, even for people who find themselves not aware of your codebase.

Listed below are another methods to make code self-documenting:

  • Keep away from pointless code. This contains lifeless code (code that's now not used however has not been eliminated) and feedback that state the plain.
  • Write code that's straightforward to check. Which means that your code needs to be modular and have a well-defined interface. It also needs to deal with errors gracefully and in a constant means.
  • Preserve the codebase small. This makes it simpler to seek out what you’re in search of and perceive how the code works.
  • Preserve your code well-organized. This implies utilizing a constant coding model and construction, and utilizing feedback to clarify complicated code.
  • Documentation is necessary, however self-documenting code is even higher. It’s simpler to learn, perceive, and keep. So subsequent time you’re writing code, ask your self if there’s something you are able to do to make it extra self-documenting.

These are just some pointers. As you turn into a extra skilled developer, you’ll discover many extra methods to make your code self-documenting.

9. Don’t Repeat Your self (DRY)

One of the vital necessary ideas of excellent coding is the DRY precept: don’t repeat your self.

Which means that you need to keep away from duplicating code each time attainable. Duplicated code is tougher to take care of and extra error-prone.

There are numerous instruments that may be employed to keep away from duplication in your code.

  • Features and modules. Features help you encapsulate code that you just need to reuse, which we checked out earlier (once we first talked about the DRY precept). Modules help you group associated capabilities collectively.
  • Knowledge buildings. Knowledge buildings can be utilized to retailer info in a means that's straightforward to entry and modify. For instance, in case you have an inventory of names, you'll be able to retailer them in an array slightly than hard-coding them into perform calls all through your code.
  • Inheritance. A extra superior method to keep away from duplication is to make use of inheritance. This can be a method to share code between lessons by having one class inherit from one other. We received’t go into element about inheritance right here, however suffice it to say that it’s a strong device that may assist you keep away from duplicating code.
  • Libraries. Lastly, you'll be able to keep away from duplication by utilizing instruments and libraries. There are numerous open-source libraries that you should utilize to carry out frequent duties. For instance, the lodash library gives a variety of utility capabilities.

The DRY precept is likely one of the most necessary ideas of excellent coding. It’s necessary to keep away from duplicating code each time attainable. This protects you time since you solely resolve issues as soon as, and solely want to alter one implementation of the answer when different elements change.

And since you'll solely must repair one implementation when issues break, DRY code is simpler to take care of and fewer error-prone.

Suggestions for writing DRY code

  1. Keep away from repeating your self by attempting to reuse code the place attainable. If you realize you’ll be doing one thing once more elsewhere in your code, you'll be able to write that code as a discrete entity the primary time and keep away from a visit again to refactor.
  2. While you reuse code, modularize it. Don’t copy the answer to the brand new location. As an alternative, transfer it into the suitable kind of object or information construction, then reference it.
  3. Refactor your code whenever you see a big alternative to learn from rewriting it as DRY code. Meaning restructuring your code with out altering its performance. Refactoring can generally be a procrastination lure, however in the event you understand that you just’ll want elements of a big perform once more, it’s price doing.
  4. Use libraries and frameworks to keep away from reinventing the wheel. When you shouldn’t repeat your self, why do you have to write code to unravel an issue that’s already been solved?
  5. Use inheritance to share code between lessons.
  6. Observe the DRY precept when creating documentation – don’t duplicate info unnecessarily.
  7. Use clear variable and performance names, and remark your code the place mandatory.

11. Write SOLID Code

One common framework for excited about how we write software program is named SOLID.

SOLID is an acronym that references 5 key software program design ideas and was coined by Robert C. Martin, a founding father of the Manifesto for Agile Software program Growth and creator of Clear Code.

The 5 design ideas of SOLID are:

  • Single accountability precept. This precept states that each class or module ought to have one (and just one) motive to alter. In different phrases, every class or module needs to be chargeable for one factor solely.
  • Open/closed precept. This precept states that software program needs to be open for extension, however closed for modification. That's, you need to be capable of prolong the performance of a category or module with out having to change the code itself.
  • Liskov substitution precept. This precept states that subclasses needs to be substitutable for his or her superclasses. That's, a subclass ought to be capable of stand in for its superclass with out inflicting any issues.
  • Interface segregation precept. This precept states that shoppers shouldn't be compelled to rely upon strategies they don’t use. In different phrases, every interface needs to be small and centered on a selected goal.
  • Dependency inversion precept. This precept states that dependencies needs to be inverted. That's, high-level modules shouldn't rely upon low-level modules. As an alternative, each ought to rely upon abstractions.

You don’t must memorize every of those ideas, however they’re price being conscious of. As you begin to write higher code, you’ll probably end up naturally following these ideas.

12. Don’t Reinvent the Wheel

One of the vital necessary ideas of excellent coding is don’t reinvent the wheel. Which means that you need to use current libraries, instruments, and frameworks each time attainable, slightly than writing your personal code from scratch.

There are numerous causes to observe this precept. First, it saves you time. You don’t have to jot down code that’s already been written. Second, it reduces the quantity of code it's a must to keep. And third, it will increase the probabilities that another person will discover and repair any bugs within the current code.

In fact, there are exceptions to this rule. And in the event you want one thing that doesn’t exist but, you’ll need to create it your self. However generally, it’s finest to reuse current code each time attainable.

13. Use a Model Management System

A model management system is a device that means that you can observe modifications to your code over time.

This could be a useful method to revert again to earlier variations of your code, or to see who made modifications to your code and when. Utilizing a model management system can even assist enhance collaboration, because it permits a number of folks to work on the identical codebase concurrently.

There are a number of totally different model management techniques accessible, however a few of the hottest ones embrace Git and Mercurial.

We advocate studying Git, as a result of you'll be able to safely assume that the majority groups you be part of sooner or later will likely be utilizing it.

GitHub is a well-liked on-line service that gives a web-based interface for Git repositories. It's constructed on prime of Git and is likely one of the hottest providers groups use to collaborate on code at present. Whilst a newbie, you’ve probably come throughout it.

When you’re excited by studying extra about model management, we advocate trying out a few of the assets beneath:


Writing good code is a vital ability for any developer, however it’s one which takes time and apply to grasp.

When you’re simply getting began, the strategies on this put up will assist you write higher code immediately.

And as you proceed to enhance your abilities, maintain the following pointers in thoughts and refer again to them when mandatory. With apply, you’ll be writing nice code very quickly!



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